Ci ha lasciati il grande Regista Sydney Pollack
LOS ANGELES — Sydney Pollack, a Hollywood mainstay as director, producer and sometime actor whose star-laden movies like “The Way We Were,” “Tootsie” and “Out of Africa” were among the most successful of the 1970s and ’80s, died Monday at home here. He was 73.
Mr. Pollack’s career defined an era in which big stars (Robert Redford, Barbra Streisand, Warren Beatty) and the filmmakers who knew how to wrangle them (Barry Levinson, Mike Nichols) retooled the Hollywood system. Savvy operators, they played studio against studio, staking their fortunes on pictures that served commerce without wholly abandoning art.
Hollywood honored Mr. Pollack in return. His movies received multiple Academy Award nominations, and as a director he won an Oscar for his work on the 1985 film “Out of Africa” as well as nominations for directing “They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?” (1969) and “Tootsie” (1982).
“Michael Clayton,” of which Mr. Pollack was a producer and a member of the cast, was nominated for a best picture Oscar earlier this year. He delivered a trademark performance as an old-bull lawyer who demands dark deeds from a subordinate, played by George Clooney. (“This is news? This case has reeked from Day 1!” snaps Mr. Pollack’s Marty Bach.) Most recently, Mr. Pollack portrayed the father of Patrick Dempsey’s character in “Made of Honor.”
Mr. Pollack became a prolific producer of independent films in the latter part of his career. With a partner, the filmmaker Anthony Minghella, he ran Mirage Enterprises, a production company whose films included Mr. Minghella’s “Cold Mountain” and the documentary “Sketches of Frank Gehry,” released in 2006, the last film directed by Mr. Pollack.
Mr. Minghella died in March, at the age of 54, of complications from surgery for tonsil cancer.
Apart from the Gehry documentary, Mr. Pollack never directed a movie without stars. His first feature, “The Slender Thread,” released by Paramount Pictures in 1965, starred Sidney Poitier and Anne Bancroft. In his next 19 films — every one a romance or drama but for the single comedy, “Tootsie” — Mr. Pollack worked with Burt Lancaster, Natalie Wood, Jane Fonda, Robert Mitchum, Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman, Meryl Streep, Tom Cruise, Harrison Ford, Nicole Kidman, Ms. Streisand and others. A frequent collaborator was Robert Redford.
“Sydney’s and my relationship both professionally and personally covers 40 years,” Mr. Redford said in an e-mailed statement. “It’s too personal to express in a sound bite.”
Sydney Irwin Pollack was born on July 1, 1934, in Lafayette, Ind., and reared in South Bend. By Mr. Pollack’s own account, in the book “World Film Directors,” his father, David, a pharmacist, and his mother, the former Rebecca Miller, were first-generation Russian-Americans who had met at Purdue University.
Mr. Pollack developed a love of drama at South Bend Central High School and, instead of going to college, went to New York and enrolled at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theater. He studied there for two years under Sanford Meisner, who was in charge of its acting department, and remained for five more as Mr. Meisner’s assistant, teaching acting but also appearing onstage and in television.
Curly-haired and almost 6 feet 2 inches tall, Mr. Pollack had a notable role in a 1959 “Playhouse 90” telecast of “For Whom the Bell Tolls,” an adaptation of the Hemingway novel directed by John Frankenheimer. Earlier, Mr. Pollack had appeared on Broadway with Zero Mostel in “A Stone for Danny Fisher” and with Katharine Cornell in “The Dark Is Light Enough.” But he said later that he probably could not have built a career as a leading man.
Instead, Mr. Pollack took the advice of Burt Lancaster, whom he had met while working with Mr. Frankenheimer, and turned to directing. Mr. Lancaster steered him to the entertainment mogul Lew Wasserman, and through him Mr. Pollack landed a directing assignment on the television series “Shotgun Slade.”
After a faltering start, he hit his stride on episodes of “Ben Casey,” “Naked City,” “The Fugitive” and other shows. In 1966 he won an Emmy for directing an episode of “Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theater.”
From the time he made his first full-length feature, “The Slender Thread,” about a social work student coaxing a woman out of suicide on a help line, Mr. Pollack had a hit-and-miss relationship with the critics. Writing in The New York Times, A. H. Weiler deplored that film’s “sudsy waves of bathos.” Mr. Pollack himself later pronounced it “dreadful.”
But from the beginning of his movie career, he was also perceived as belonging to a generation whose work broke with the immediate past. In 1965, Charles Champlin, writing in The Los Angeles Times, compared Mr. Pollack to the director Elliot Silverstein, whose western spoof, “Cat Ballou,” had been released earlier that year, and Stuart Rosenberg, soon to be famous for “Cool Hand Luke” (1967). Mr. Champlin cited all three as artists who had used television rather than B movies to learn their craft.
Self-critical and never quite at ease with Hollywood, Mr. Pollack voiced a constant yearning for creative prerogatives more common on the stage. Yet he dived into the fray. In 1970, “They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?,” his bleak fable of love and death among marathon dancers in the Great Depression, based on a Horace McCoy novel, received nine Oscar nominations, including the one for directing. (Gig Young won the best supporting actor award for his performance.)
Two years later, Mr. Pollack made the mountain-man saga “Jeremiah Johnson,” one of three closely spaced pictures in which he directed Mr. Redford.
The second of those, “The Way We Were,” about ill-fated lovers who meet up later in life, also starred Ms. Streisand and was a huge hit despite critical hostility.
The next, “Three Days of the Condor,” another hit, about a bookish C.I.A. worker thrust into a mystery, did somewhat better with the critics. “Tense and involving,” said Roger Ebert in The Chicago Sun-Times.
With “Absence of Malice” in 1981, Mr. Pollack entered the realm of public debate. The film’s story of a newspaper reporter (Sally Field) who is fed a false story by federal officials trying to squeeze information from a businessman (Paul Newman) was widely viewed as a corrective to the adulation of investigative reporters that followed Alan J. Pakula’s hit movie “All the President’s Men,” with its portrayal of the Watergate scandal.
But only with “Tootsie,” in 1982, did Mr. Pollack become a fully realized Hollywood player. By then he was represented by Michael S. Ovitz and the rapidly expanding Creative Artists Agency. So was his leading man, Dustin Hoffman.
As the film — a comedy about a struggling actor who disguises himself as a woman to get a coveted television part — was being shot for Columbia Pictures, Mr. Pollack and Mr. Hoffman became embroiled in a semi-public feud, with Mr. Ovitz running shuttle diplomacy between them.
Mr. Hoffman, who had initiated the project, argued for a more broadly comic approach. But Mr. Pollack — who played Mr. Hoffman’s agent in the film — was drawn to the seemingly doomed romance between the cross-dressing Hoffman character and the actress played by Jessica Lange.
If Mr. Pollack did not prevail on all points, he tipped the film in his own direction. Meanwhile, the movie came in behind schedule, over budget and surrounded by bad buzz.
Yet “Tootsie” was also a winner. It took in more than $177 million domestically and received 10 Oscar nominations, including for best picture. (Ms. Lange took home the film’s only Oscar, for best supporting actress.)
Backed by Mr. Ovitz, Mr. Pollack expanded his reach in the wake of success. Over the next several years, he worked closely with both TriStar Pictures, where he was creative consultant, and Universal, where Mirage, his production company, set up shop in 1986.
Mr. Pollack reached perhaps his pinnacle with “Out of Africa.” The film, based on the memoirs of Isak Dinesen, paired Ms. Streep and Mr. Redford in a drama that reworked one of the director’s favorite themes, that of star-crossed lovers. It captured Oscars for best picture and best director.
Still, Mr. Pollack remained uneasy about his cinematic skills. “I was never what I would call a great shooter or visual stylist,” he told an interviewer for American Cinematographer last year. And he developed a reputation for caution when it came to directing assignments. Time after time, he expressed interest in directing projects, only to back away. At one point he was to make “Rain Man,”John le Carré. a Dustin Hoffman picture ultimately directed by Mr. Levinson; at another, an adaptation of “The Night Manager” by
That wariness was undoubtedly fed by his experience with “Havana,” a 1990 film that was to be his last with Mr. Redford. It seemed to please no one, though Mr. Pollack defended it. “To tell you the truth, if I knew what was wrong, I’d have fixed it,” Mr. Pollack told The Los Angeles Times in 1993.
“The Firm,” with Tom Cruise, was a hit that year. But “Sabrina” (1995) and “Random Hearts” (1999), both with Harrison Ford, and “The Interpreter” (2005), with Nicole Kidman and Sean Penn, fell short, as Hollywood and its primary audience increasingly eschewed stars for fantasy and special effects.
Mr. Pollack never stopped acting; in a recent episode of “Entourage,” the HBO series about Hollywood, he played himself.
Among Mr. Pollack’s survivors are two daughters, Rebecca Pollack and Rachel Pollack, and his wife, Claire Griswold. The couple married in 1958, while Mr. Pollack was serving a two-year hitch in the Army. Their only son, Steven, died at age 34 in a 1993 plane crash in Santa Monica, Calif.
In his later years, Mr. Pollack appeared to relish his role as elder statesman. At various times he was executive director of the Actors Studio West, chairman of American Cinematheque and an advocate for artists’ rights.
He increasingly sounded wistful notes about the disappearance of the Hollywood he knew in his prime. “The middle ground is now gone,” Mr. Pollack said in the fall 1998 issue of New Perspectives Quarterly. He added, with a nod to a fellow filmmaker: “It is not impossible to make mainstream films which are really good. Costa-Gavras once said that accidents can happen.”
By Sydney Pollack
A selected filmography: “The Slender Thread” (1965)
“This Property Is Condemned” (1966)
“The Scalphunters” (1968)
“The Swimmer” (1968) (uncredited)
“Castle Keep” (1969)
“They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?” (1969)
“Jeremiah Johnson” (1972)
“The Way We Were” (1973)
“The Yakuza” (1974)
“Three Days of the Condor” (1975)
“Bobby Deerfield” (1977)
“The Electric Horseman” (1979)
“Absence of Malice” (1981)
“Out of Africa” (1985)
“The Firm” (1993)
“Random Hearts” (1999)
“The Interpreter” (2005)
“Sketches of Frank Gehry” (2005)
La scomparsa di Sydney Pollack rappresenta una notizia tristissima per tutti coloro che, nel corso di oltre quarant’anni, hanno ammirato i suoi film, fra cui alcuni titoli famosissimi quali Come eravamo, Tootsie e La mia Africa.
Sydney Israel Pollack era nato a Lafayette, in Indiana, l’1 luglio 1934, da una famiglia ebraica di origine russa. Nel 1958 aveva sposato Claire Griswold, che è stata sua moglie per cinquant’anni e gli ha dato tre figli (uno dei quali è deceduto nel 1993 in un incidente aereo). La sua carriera di regista era iniziata negli Anni ’60, quando Pollack aveva girato diversi episodi di alcuni celebri telefilm; poi, nel 1965 aveva debuttato al cinema con La vita corre sul filo.
Da allora, la folgorante carriera di Pollack era continuata in salita con Questa ragazza è di tuttiJoe Bass l’implacabile (1968), con Burt Lancaster. Nel 1969 aveva diretto altre due pellicole acclamatissime: il film di guerra Ardenne ’44, un inferno, sempre con Burt Lancaster, e soprattutto Non si uccidono così anche i cavalli?, un allucinato dramma ambientato nel corso di una massacrante maratona di ballo, interpretato da una delle sue attrici favorite, Jane Fonda. (1966), con Natalie Wood e Robert Redford, ed il western
Nel 1972 aveva firmato il western crepuscolare Corvo rosso non avrai il mio scalpo, con protagonista l’attore Robert Redford, intimo amico di Pollack, oltre che suo partner cinematografico in numerose pellicole. L’anno seguente, Pollack aveva realizzato uno dei maggiori successi della sua carriera, Come eravamo (1973), la malinconica storia d’amore fra un giovane scrittore ed una ragazza ebrea, con Robert Redford e Barbra Streisand. Nel 1975 è stata la volta di altri due classici nella produzione di Pollack: il celebre film di spionaggio I tre giorni del condor, con Robert Redford e Faye Dunaway, e Yakuza, un gangster-movie sulla Mafia giapponese, interpretato da Robert Mitchum. In questo periodo, Pollack ha cominciato a produrre lui stesso le proprie pellicole, diventando così uno dei personaggi più influenti di Hollywood.
Dopo la commedia campione d’incassi Il cavaliere elettrico (1979), con l’accoppiata Redford / Fonda, e il dramma sul giornalismo Diritto di cronaca (1981), con Paul Newman e Sally Field, nel 1982 Sydney Pollack ha realizzato il suo più grande successo di pubblico: Tootsie, un’esilarante commedia che vede Dustin Hoffman recitare in panni femminili per ottenere una parte in una soap-opera, mentre nel frattempo cerca di conquistare la collega Jessica Lange. Nel 1985, Pollack aveva messo a segno un’altra pellicola acclamatissima dalla critica e dal pubblico: La mia Africa, una struggente storia d’amore tratta dal romanzo autobiografico della scrittrice danese Karen Blixen, con Meryl Streep e Robert Redford nei ruoli dei due protagonisti; La mia Africa si era rivelato un autentico trionfo ed aveva vinto ben sette premi Oscar, fra cui gli Oscar a Pollack per il miglior film e la miglior regia.
Dopo il flop di Havana (1990), Sydney Pollack era tornato a conquistare il botteghino con il fortunatissimo legal-thriller Il socio (1993), con Tom Cruise e Gene Hackman. Tra i suoi successivi film da regista ricordiamo il remake di Sabrina (1995), con Harrison Ford, ed il thriller The interpreterRitorno a Cold Mountain (2003); e proprio insieme al suo collega Anthony Minghella (scomparso pure lui pochi mesi fa) aveva fondato la compagnia di produzione Mirage Enterprises. (2005), con Nicole Kidman e Sean Penn. Nel corso degli anni, Sydney Pollack aveva prodotto non solo i propri film, ma anche opere di altri registi, come
Accanto alla sua attività dietro la macchina da presa, negli ultimi vent’anni Sydney Pollack si era cimentato spesso anche come attore, per lo più in ruoli secondari: tra i film da lui interpretati, Mariti e mogli di Woody Allen (1992), Eyes wide shut di Stanley Kubrick (1999) ed il thriller Michael Clayton di Tony Gilroy (2007), da lui stesso prodotto. In tanti anni di professione Pollack aveva ottenuto moltissimi riconoscimenti, fra cui due premi Oscar su sei nomination (di cui tre come regista) e due Golden Globe.
Ho amato tutti i suoi film, ne cito solo alcuni, Il famosissimo ” Indovina chi viene a cena?”, Il bellissimo “Out of Africa”( La mia Africa), “Tootsie”, davvero esilarante dove Pollack oltre che regista è anche attore e l’ultimo che mi tocca sempre il cuore-” Come eravamo”- con i fantastici Barbra Streisand e Robert Redford. Tutte le volte che lo rivedo mi commuovo e spero sempre che il finale veda quella bella coppia riunita….. ma non è così!